[Dr. Scott W. Tinker] Drilling for oil today starts with the same technology it has for about a century: the rotary drill bit. It's attached to a pipe which is built into sections called a drill string. The rig rotates the pipe, rotates the bit, and cuts into the earth. Mud is pumped down the drill string and flushes out rock cuttings back to the surface. This technology has improved over the years but here's where the dramatic changes start. This section here sends three-dimensional information about the position of the bit back to the operators who can now control the direction precisely. They are able to bend steel pipe 90 degrees or more and drill into this layer here. This process called geosteering has ushered in a whole new era of oil exploration. Operators are now able to drill for a 10-foot window from ten thousand feet away. Offshore drilling is the same, just a lot more complicated. This platform floats in 10,000 feet of water. Once on the seafloor, it has to drill down another ten to fifteen thousand feet. That's 25 thousand feet of pipe they're controlling. That's hard to visualize. Imagine this shoe box is a drilling platform. One section of 60-foot pipe is 90 times longer than this soda straw, and that's just one section. Now imagine trying to hit a target the size of a frisbee by moving the straw all the way back here. It takes offices full of people and equipment and billions of dollars to make this work. It's difficult technology in difficult environments and it has its risks, but with conventional onshore fields in decline, the world is looking to evermore complex ways to obtain oil.